Instruments of state support for tourism development.
Recently, the tourism industry has received significant attention, both from government agencies and from the private sector. It is obvious that in order to increase the competitiveness of existing tourist regions and to form new ones, it is necessary to use a cluster approach. But for the successful implementation of this approach, the direct participation of the state is necessary.
The main goal of the state policy in the field of tourism today is the creation of a highly efficient and competitive tourism cluster in the country, which will provide ample opportunities to meet the needs of both residents of the country and foreign tourists.
In all sectors of the domestic economy, including in the field of tourism, the cluster approach is now actively used as the main tool for their further development. Most often, the creation of clusters begins with a decision by the authorities of various levels on the creation and composition of a cluster.
But, as practice shows, the process of the emergence of clusters also proceeds in a natural way. As a result of long-term partnership relations of enterprises participating in various economic processes, tourist and recreational clusters arise as the most important points of growth of the territories of the regions. Developers of target programs for the development of these territories are trying to determine the most promising clusters using expert assessments in order to finance their development.
In modern conditions of the development of the tourism sector in Russia, the cluster approach is increasingly being used, which can have a positive impact on the effective functioning of the tourism industry.
The active role of the state in the functioning of the cluster (arrangement and financing of transport, engineering, communal infrastructure) increases the interest of investors in the implementation of projects. At the same time, the activities of the state are aimed at limiting and reducing infrastructural risks associated primarily with utilities and transport facilities. Private business is accumulating its efforts on the creation, operation and reconstruction of the tourist facilities themselves.
The formation of tourist clusters is beneficial to all parties: the state, because as a result, additional incentives are created not only for the development of the tourist complex, but also for the economic growth of territories; entrepreneurship that does not bear infrastructure costs and minimizes the risks of its investments, having a state guarantee of the safety of its activities; society - through the creation of additional jobs and decent conditions for rest and recreation.
Today, the state is the main investor in infrastructure projects in the field of tourism. Public-private partnership acts as one of the forms of implementation of such projects. Private investors need government support. Providing communal infrastructure and solving the transport issue are important conditions for the successful functioning of a private tourist enterprise.
On May 31, 2014, by the Order of the Government of the Russian Federation, the Strategy for the Development of Tourism in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020 was approved.
The strategy is an integral part of the Concept of long-term socio-economic development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020 and fully correlates with the objectives of the State Program of the Russian Federation "Development of Culture and Tourism" for 2013-2020.
Also, the developed Strategy logically continues the planning documents implemented in the field of tourism in previous years, fully takes into account global trends and the current state of the industry in the context of current and future tasks of public administration in the field of culture, patriotic education of youth, social security of citizens, physical culture and sports, education , promoting employment and preserving the natural and cultural and historical resources of our country. In accordance with the provisions of this Strategy, an Action Plan for its implementation for the future until 2020 has been developed, which is an integral part of the Strategy.
The role of the state in the development of the tourism industry is to create the necessary infrastructure - roads, pipelines, electricity, water supply, etc. In addition, funding for the training of personnel for the industry, as well as a number of measures aimed at stimulating domestic and inbound tourism. This should increase the number of tourists by 2-3 times.
For the dynamic development of tourism, it is not always sufficient to have unique tourist resources, convenient geographic location and developed infrastructure. Also important are the economic and political environment, the attitude of the state and local population towards foreign tourists, foreign investments and a different way of life in general. Therefore, it is necessary to highlight the factors that have both a constraining effect on the cluster and contributing to its development.
The tourist cluster plays an important role in the development of not only municipalities, constituent entities of the Russian Federation, federal districts, but also the country as a whole, solving social problems, including those related to the creation of additional jobs, problems of improving the quality of domestic tourist products and services and increasing investment and the tourist attractiveness of regions and countries.
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