Tourism is currently one of the most highly profitable and dynamically developing sectors of the world economy. In such conditions, it cannot exist without the use of information resources. One of the most important resources for tourism are reference information publications, in particular travel guides.
The main task of the reference publication is to give the information necessary or of interest to the reader in the shortest possible presentation. It should be noted that the principles of selection of information and their placement in a particular publication directly depend on the intended purpose.
In tourism, reference books include, first of all, guidebooks.
A guide is a short reference publication with a description of geographical, historical, artistic and other information about the country, city, local attractions, routes of communication, etc., intended mainly for tourists.
The guide is a reference publication with an educational character, intended for use by a wide range of readers. It is necessary not only for tourists who come to a certain city or area for the first time, but also for the residents of this city.
It is necessary to highlight the fundamental functions of a travel guide in tourism:
Speaking about the specifics of the development of a guidebook, its characteristic features should be highlighted. The guidebook is characterized by a reduced amount of information, the material is arranged in the most convenient form for quick reference information. Also, the features of the guide are popular presentation, significant adaptation, the presence of numerous illustrations. Considering that these publications perform not only an informative, but also an advertising (incentive) function, guidebooks usually use elements of amusement, easy forms of speech, the text is replete with epithets,
When creating a guide, you should adhere to the basic principles underlying the guide:
- ease of use;
- the reliability of the factual material;
- regular updating of the material;
- clarity, use of photographs, maps, diagrams;
- focus on certain categories of the population;
- structural division of the text;
- relevance of information.
Since the guidebook is a reference publication, it is important that the order of the arrangement of the material is built alphabetically or has a systematic structure and is determined by the system of knowledge representation, which is accepted in science or in practice.
The main elements of the content of the guide are a city map, information about the tourist center and attractions, a list of accommodation facilities and catering establishments, their cost and opening hours, addresses of stations, banks, transport timetables, emergency numbers and taxis and other reference information. You can also include information about the peculiarities of the mentality and cuisine of the local population, tourist ethics.
The organizational structure of all the material that is in the guidebook and its design should create the most favorable conditions for selective reading. This edition, most often, is quite compact, because it accompanies a tourist on a journey. The principle of the arrangement of the material should be the most convenient for the reader: in a systematic or alphabetical order.
The text of the guide should be divided into sections and objects within sections should be selected. This technique provides the possibility of intermittent reading: the reader, looking at the object of interest, can at any time break away from the text of the guidebook, and the division of the text into structural components allows you to quickly find the place where he left off before.
Structural division of the text in the guide is carried out by means of inline selections, which improve the reader's orientation in the text and facilitate its perception. In guidebooks, paragraph division is most often used. It also uses bold type to provide expressiveness of important factual information (names of points of interest, for example) among the text array. In the text of the guide, the spelling of words in italics and in capital letters is used. Italics in reference books are used to highlight proper names, subheadings of articles, quotations, etc.
The tools that contribute to the best orientation in the text and the rapid search for reference information include numbering, headers and footers, numbered, verbal and literary headings. All guidebooks must indicate a number on each page. The task of pagination is to provide the ability to link to the desired page. Headers and footers help to quickly extract the necessary information from the text, they are well perceived when turning the pages of a book.
The headings of the guidebook should be expressive, highly informative, uniform in design throughout the publication as in the system. Most often in publications of this kind, thematic headings are used - this is a word or phrase that briefly and succinctly characterizes the content of the section.
The external design of the guide must meet the goals and functions of this type of publication. The binding should not be easily soiled; for pocket guidebooks, it is desirable that it be flexible. Brief information about the edition is indicated on the binding. The endpapers of the edition can contain maps-schemes, plans of the city and its environs.
A guidebook gives anyone the opportunity to make not only a real, but also a mental trip around the city, so it must create optimal conditions for a better perception of information.
Visual materials of various kinds play an important role in this: diagrams, maps, drawings, photographs. The text material and illustrations in the guide must be presented in an organic unity. Illustrations in guidebooks, as a rule, are of a scientific and educational nature, supplement the text of the guidebook, and it is important that they are correctly attached to the text by location.
Any illustrative material in the guide must exactly correspond to the content of the publication, carry specific information due to the main text. Currently, the most common type of illustration in a travel guide is photography. It is characterized by documentation, clarity and reliability. Photos are able to convey the unique look of the city and help to focus on its main attractions.
Thus, we can conclude that a travel guide is one of the most important sources of reference information in tourism. Its creation contributes to solving the problem of meeting the need for information of tourists and travelers.
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